Europe: A History

R sultats de la rechercheThis is the first major history of Europe to give equal weight to both East and West, and it shines light on fascinating minority communities, from heretics and lepers to Gypsies, Jews, and Muslims It also takes an innovative approach, combining traditional narrative with unique features that help bring history alive time capsules scattered through the narrative capture telling aspects of an era snapshots offer a panoramic look at all of Europe at a particular moment in historyThis is the first major history of Europe to give equal weight to both East and West, and it shines light on fascinating minority communities, from heretics and lepers to Gypsies, Jews, and Muslims It also takes an innovative approach, combining traditional narrative with unique features that help bring history alive time capsules scattered through the narrative capture telling aspects of an era snapshots offer a panoramic look at all of Europe at a particular moment in historyThe book s absorbing narrative lays down the chronological and geographical grid on which the dramas of European history have been played out It zooms in from the distant focus of Chapter One,Europe A History by Norman Davies Pimlico, pages review from This is probably the single biggest volume I have ever read It has many fans, and rightly so European history is rather like translations of Homer and films of Shakespeare each English speaking generation needs to have its ownFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Europe A History is a narrative history book by Norman DaviesROPE A History NORMAN DAVIES This eBook is copyright material and must not be copied, reproduced, transferred, distributed, leased, licensed or publicly performed or used in any way except as specifically permitted in writing by the publishers, as allowed under the terms and conditions under which it was purchased or as strictly permitted by applicable copyright lawThis is the first major history of Europe to give equal weight to both East and West, and it shines light on fascinating minority communities, from heretics and lepers to Gypsies, Jews, and Muslims It also takes an innovative approach, combining traditional narrative with unique features that help bring history alive time capsules scattered through the narrative capture telling aspects of an era snapshots offer a panoramic look at all of Europe at a particular moment in historyUne Europe en paix les d buts de la coop ration L Union europ enne UE a t cr e dans le but de mettre fin aux guerres qui ont r guli rement ensanglant le continent, et qui ont culmin avec la Seconde guerre mondiale partir de , la Communaut europ enne du charbon et de l acier unit progressivement les pays europ ens sur les plans conomique et politique afin deA magisterial and acclaimed history of post war Europe, from Germany to Poland, from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, selected as one of New York Times Ten Best Books of the Year Europe in was drained Much of the continent was devastated by war, mass slaughter, bombing and chaos Large areas of Eastern Europe were falling under Soviet control, exchanging one despotism for another Today, the Soviet Union is noand the democracies of the European Union reach as far as the borders

Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe

R sultats de la rechercheFrom Norman Davies, the acclaimed author of Europe A History, comes the magical history of Europe s lost realms, selected as a Book of the Year by the Sunday Times, Daily Telegraph, New Statesman, Independent, Guardian and Financial TimesEurope s history is littered with kingdoms, duchies, empires and republics which have now disappeared but which were once fixtures on the map of their age What happened to the once great Mediterranean Empire of Aragon Where did the half forgottenThe book revisits Europe s past through this particular lens and each of its fifteen chapters presents a vanished kingdom The book is something of a complement to his Europe A History rev ante, cxiii, , which bore the concept of the current book in embryonic shape p Norman Davies surprised methan years ago with his phenomenal Europe A History , a thick peat that had the great merit of treating Eastern European history on an equal footing with that of the well known Western European Davies then continued to produce thick volumes, and this Vanished Kingdoms also is a quite voluminous His focus in this book is on the kingdoms and states that have come to an end in the course of European history Some were very well known to me, such as the BurgFor that alone, Vanished Kingdoms is a magnificent if at times slightly wearisome achievement Vanished Kingdoms The History of Half Forgotten Europe Friday October The Telegraph, Ben Wilson All the nations that have ever lived have left their footsteps in the sand writes Norman DaviesVanished Kingdoms The History of Half Forgotten Europe Author Norman Davies Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Penguin Books Limited, ISBN , Length pages SubjectsFrom Norman Davies, the acclaimed author of Europe A History, comes the magical history of Europe s lost realms, selected as a Book of the Year by the Sunday Times, Daily Telegraph, New Statesman, Independent, Guardian and Financial Times Europe s history is littered with kingdoms, duchies, empires and republics which have now disappeared but which were once fixtures on the map of their age What happened to the once great Mediterranean Empire of Aragon Where did the half forgottenEurope s past is littered with states and kingdoms, large and small, that are scarcely remembered today, and while their names may be unfamiliar Aragon, Etruria, the Kingdom of the Two Burgundies their stories should change our mental map of the past We come across forgotten characters and famous ones King Arthur and Macbeth, Napoleon and Queen Victoria, right up to Stalin and Gorbachev andVanished Kingdoms The History of Half Forgotten Europe Norman Davies out of stars Paperback The Penguin History of the World th edition J M Roberts out of stars Paperback The Shortest History of Europe John Hirst You may have thought those history texts you used at school were big and complicated, but historian Norman Davies Vanished Kingdoms will amaze you at some of the stories they skipped over Author Davies proves just how complicated and messy with In pages and chapters Vanished Kingdoms offers a grand tour of ancient Scotland, Burgundia, Aragon, Litva, Byzantion, Borussia, Sabauda Italy , Galicia, Etruria Bonaparte s Italy , Rosenau Saxe Coburg , Tsernagora aka

The Isles: A History

R sultats de la rechercheNot Retrouvez The Isles A History et des millions de livres en stock sur Achetez neuf ou d occasionNot Retrouvez The Isles A History et des millions de livres en stock sur Achetez neuf ou d occasionThe Isles A History Andrew Sachs, Norman Davies, Pan Macmillan Publishers Ltd LivresCultura propose la vente en ligne de produits culturels, retrouvez un grand choix de CD et DVD, jeux vid o, livres et les univers loisirs et cr ationThe Isles are a very interesting history of what we think of as Great Britain which is and has been groups of people ie Scotland, Wales, Ireland etc The history continues up to what will happen June , when Britain will either stay or leave the European Union This is even though it was published in Davies spends a lot of time going deep into the background of the people,ideas etc explaining why they developed as they did Definately a good read and timely alsoWritten by one of the most brilliant and provocative historians at work today, The Isles is a revolutionary narrative history that takes a new perspective on the development of Britain and Ireland,Written by one of the most brilliant and provocative historians at work today,The Isles is a revolutionary narrative history that takes a new perspective on the development of Britain and Ireland, looking at them not as self contained islands, but as an inextricable part of EuropeThe Isles A History is a narrative history book by Norman Davies Content edit As in his earlier Europe A History , Davies is not trying to present any new history, but does want to tackle what he sees as historiographical biases in the treatment of the history of Britain and IrelandWritten by one of the most brilliant and provocative historians at work today, The Isles is a revolutionary narrative history that presents a new perspective on the development of Britain and Ireland, looking at them not as self contained islands, but as an inextricable part of Europe

No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939-1945

R sultats de la rechercheEurope at War No Simple Victory is a history book about World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies Published sixty years after World War II, Davies argues that a number of misconceptions about the war are still common and then sets out to address them Two of his main claims are that, contrary to popular belief in the West, the dominant part of the conflict took place in Eastern Europe between the two totalitarian systems of the century communismNo simple victory World War II in Europe Item Preview remove circle Share or Embed This Item EMBED EMBED for wordpress hosted blogs and archive item description tags WantAdvanced embedding details, examples, and help NoFavorite share flag Flag this item for Graphic Violence Graphic Sexual Content texts No simple victory World War II in Europe No Simple Victory is a critical examination of World War II in Europe by Norman Davies, an export on Polish and Eastern European involvement in that war It presents a much different perspective than that usually encountered by American, Canadian or British readers The points of the book are two fold first, that the bulk of the fighting occurred on the Eastern Front and secondly that the goodness of the Good War was soiled by reliance on the forces of a tyrannicalNo Simple Victory World War II in Europe, Author Norman Davies Edition reprint Publisher Penguin, ISBN , Length pages SubjectsNorman Davies, a professor emeritus at London University, holds passionate views about World War II, and in No Simple Victory he seeks to correct popular misconceptions about that goodDavies has established himself as a preeminent scholar of World War II No Simple Victory is an invaluable contribution to twentieth century history and an illuminating portrait of a conflict that continues to provoke debate Preview this book What people are saying Write a review User ratings stars stars stars stars star LibraryThing Review User ReviewNo Simple Victory World War II in Europe, Norman Davies download B OK Download books for free Find booksThis item No Simple Victory World War II in Europe, by Norman Davies Paperback Only left in stock order soon Sold by PrimestoreUS and ships fromFulfillmentEurope at War No Simple Victory paperback softback Edition No Simple Victory World War II in Europe, Norman Davies out of stars Hardcover Next Customers who bought this item also bought Page of Start over Page of This shopping feature will continue to load items when the Enter key is pressed In order to navigate out of this carouselEurope at War No Simple Victory and over million other books are available forKindle LearnHistory Military History World War II Share Buy New RRP You Save % FREE Delivery Only left in stockon the way Available as a Kindle eBook Kindle eBooks can be read on any device with the free Kindle app

White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War 1919-1920 and The Miracle on the Vistula

R sultats de la rechercheIn White Eagle, Red Star, distinguished historian Norman Davies gives us a full account of the Polish Soviet War, with its dramatic climax in August when the Red Army sure of victory and pledged to carry the Revolution across Europe was crushed by a devastating Polish attack Since known as the Miracle of the Vistula, it remains one of the most crucial conflicts of the Western world Drawing on both Polish and Russian sources, Norman Davies shows how this war was a pivotalNot Retrouvez White Eagle, Red Star The Polish Soviet War and The Miracle on the Vistula by Norman Davies et des millions de livres en stock sur Achetez neuf ou d occasionIn White Eagle, Red Star, distinguished historian Norman Davies gives us a full account of the Polish Soviet War, with its dramatic climax in August when the Red Armysure of victory and pledged to carry the Revolution across Europe was crushed by a devastating Polish attackWhite Eagle, Red Star The Polish Soviet War and the Miracle on the Vistula Many authors are specially fond of their first book, as parents are of their first child, and I am no exception It came into being suddenly, following the advice of my former Oxford tutor, AJP Taylor PhIn White Eagle, Red Star, Norman Davies gives a full account of the War, with its dramatic climax in August when the Red Army sure of victory and pledged to carry the Revolution acrossWhite Eagle, Red Star The Polish Soviet War and The Miracle on the Vistula Pimlico ed London Random House ISBN London Random House ISBN

Microcosm: A Portrait of a Central European City

R sultats de la rechercheMicrocosm Portrait of a Central European City is a book by British historians Norman Davies and Roger Moorhouse about the history of Wroc aw, the largest city in western Poland Content The book opens with a description of the siege and fall of German Breslau at the very end of the Second World War The attacking Red Army reduces many streets of the city to rubble, the remainingA Portrait of a Central European City, Microcosm, Norman Davies, Roger Moorhouse, Vintage digital Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en jour ou en magasin avec % de r ductionStart by marking Microcosm A Portrait of a Central European City as Want to Read Start your review of Microcosm A Portrait of a Central European City Write a review Jan , Alex Lach rated it it was amazing My of my favorite Davies behind, History of Europe and Uprising , well written, weaves the many different, stories,cultures, religions and people who have played aMicrocosm A Portrait of a Central European City The administrators of my institute at London University were far from happy that I was spending so much time writing the Oxford History of Europe They thought that professors should concentrate on projects that attracted research grants from which a juicy deduction of percent could be made for the benefit of the professor s employers AtBuy Microcosm A Portrait of a Central European City st Edition by Norman Davies, Roger Moorhouse ISBN froms Book Store Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible ordersMicrocosm Portrait of a Central European City Norman Davies Roger Moorhouse on FREE shipping on qualifying offers Microcosm Portrait of a Central European CityAs a central European city, the Jewish experience throughout is one of thesuccessful in descriptive, historical and personal experience terms It is interesting that it was the major centre of reform judaism Because of the concentration on the historical, there is less concentration on the cultural, particularly working class culture and experience A shame as this would have broughtMICROCOSM Portrait of a European City by Norman Davies pp Breslau in the German Empire, The German Empire, established through the force of Prussian led armies, was proclaimed at Versailles in a defeated France in January It was to experience phenomenal economic and demographic growth, outstripping its rivals, like Great Britain, in many sectors of production andMicrocosm A Portrait of a Central European City Davies, Norman, Moorhouse, Roger ISBN Kostenloser Versand f r alle B cher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Microcosm Portrait of a Central European City en espa ol, Microcosmos Retrato de una ciudad central europea es un libro de Norman Davies y Roger Moorhouse que trata sobre la historia de Breslavia Wroclaw , Polonia Enlaces externos Wroclaw , Capital Europea de la Cultura Ayuntamiento de Wroclaw

Norman Davies. Sam o sobie

R sultats de la recherchePierwsza autobiografia wybitnego historyka Kiedy si urodzi , mama karmi a go za pomoc wiecznego pi ra z pompk Nie wierzono, e prze yje Uwielbia podr e i wie e powietrzeNorman Davies Sam o sobie Pierwsza autobiografia wybitnego historyka Kiedy si urodzi , mama karmi a go za pomoc wiecznego pi ra z pompk Nie wierzono, e prze yje Uwielbia podr e i wie e powietrze Po studiach na Oksfordzie chcia zosta przewodnikiem g rskim Sport mia we krwi Nie znosi wylegiwania si na pla y, za to uwielbia samodzielnie pra koszule wPremiera nowej ksi ki Norman Davies Sam o sobie pa dzienika r pojawia a si w ksi garniach pierwsza autobiografia Normana Daviesa Wnikliwy obserwator rzeczywisto ci, po raz pierwszy opowiada tak osobist histori o rodzinie, dorastaniu w Bolton, karierze nauczyciela, zwi zkach z Francj i Polsk , samochodach, futboluProfesor Norman Davies odwiedzi Gdyni Wszystko w ramach promocji najnowszej ksi ki autobiografi Sam o sobie Spotkanie z czytelnikami odby o si w sobot , pa dziernika wNorman Davies Sam o sobie Norman Davies % In stock Dost pne ponad sztuk , z , z Dostawa do UK zawsze tylko Sam o sobie Ukaza a si ona nak adem wydawnictwa Znak Jej autorem jest oczywi cie Norman Davies, kt ry w bardzo obszernej licz cej ponad siedemset stron ksi ce opowiada o swoim yciu Mo emy powiedzie , e jest to autobiografia w formie gaw dy Autor po raz kolejny pokazuje swoj erudycj i mnogo zainteresowaNorman Davies naukowiec, podr nik i pisarz, szcz liwiec i mistrz we wpadaniu z deszczu pod rynn , syn i brat, m i ojciec oraz last but not least wiadek historii Adwokat pokrewie stwa mi dzy histori a literatur Autor bestseller w, m Bo e igrzysko Historia Polski, Powstanie , Europa walczy Sam o sobie autograf Kiedy si urodzi , mama karmi a go za pomoc wiecznego pi ra z pompk Nie wierzono, e prze yje Uwielbia podr e i wie e powietrze Po studiach na Oksfordzie chcia zosta przewodnikiem g rskimNapisz recenzj o produkcie Norman Davies Sam o sobie Twoja ocena Ocena og lna star stars stars stars stars Pseudonim Tytu Recenzja Dodaj recenzj Inne ksi ki tego autora Dodaj do schowka Por wnaj % Europa Mi dzy Wschodem a Zachodem , z , z Oszcz dzasz , z Dodaj do koszyka Quick Shop Por wnaj Dodaj do schowka Por wnaj % Na kra ceNorman Davies Sam o sobie Norman Davies Pierwsza autobiografia wybitnego historyka Autor prze omowego Powstania opowiada o rodzinie, dorastaniu w Bolton, karierze nauczyciela, zwi zkach z Polsk , samochodach, futbolu, trudnych decyzjach, odwa nych celach Wi cej , z , z Dodaj do koszyka Do koszyka % Na kra ce wiata Podr historyka przez histori

Europe East And West

R sultats de la recherche Show students the best of Europe East and West Arrive in Berlin and explore the city with a local guide Then, it s on to Dresden, en route to Prague In Prague, visit Hradcany and see the artists homes in the Golden Lanes Travel on to Vienna where a local guide will show you the Hofburg, the Belvedere, and St Stephen s Cathedral Tour Salzburg, home of Mozart, on the way to Munich Europe East West tem um monte de coisas que me incomodou o cap tulo sobre a hist ria da c tedra de Hist ria em Oxford absolutamente inintelig vel para quem nunca estudou l ou nem sequer brit nico, para come ar , a insist ncia em falar dos gulags toda vez que falava no Holocausto sim, o regime sovi tico matou muito mais gente do que os nazistas, entendemos isso nasGreece is located in south east Europe Also, the people in Romania speak a language with romance roots, which is called the Romanian language It is related to Italian, Spanish, French and Portuguese The Romanian language consists of % Latin, % Dacian and % Slavic By the way, the economy in some eastern European countries Poland, Romania and Hungary is relatively close to the ItalianEurope s East West wealth gap narrows but grows North South study Jan Strupczewski, Francesco Guarascio Min Read SOFIA Reuters The European Union s central and eastern members areEurope East and West the Seipel Line Coby Lubliner The entrance of ten new member states into the European Union on May , , was almost universally interpreted, at least in the American media, as the Union s expansion into Eastern Europe But with the exception of Cyprus there is in reality very little that is eastern about these countries the Baltic republics, Malta, PolandEastern Europe countries are shown here in their position west of Russia This seemingly easy and straightforward question is extremely controversial due to international political alignments which makes it difficult to get a uniform answer Geographically, Eastern Europe consists of countries on the eastern side of Europe Eastern Europe, as a term, has a socioeconomic and geopolitical angleAlthough references to West and Eastern Europe can be traced back to the Roman empire Shortly after World War the alliance between the USSR and England USA broke down and in it s place rose the cold war The two sides where named the East and the West The west was made up of the Western alliance countries of Europe, including countries

Litva: The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms

R sultats de la rechercheAchetez et t l chargez ebook Litva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms Penguin Tracks English Edition Boutique Kindle Eastern Excellent overview of a grand Lithuanian kingdom, virtually unheard of, that included much of eastern Europe in the th to th centuries This is a historian s book, and well documented The author relies on primary sources as much as he can and is hindered by the lack of a central archive The Metryka Litevska or Lithuanian Register has portions dispersed throughout Lithuania, Russia, Poland, and Sweden, and historians are trying to assemble the bits and pieces of this importantThe fascinating history of a Baltic empire s dominance and decline excerpted from internationally bestselling author Norman Davies s Vanished Kingdoms Vanished Kingdoms introduces readers to once powerful European empires that have left scant traces on the modern map In this excerpt from his widely acclaimed book, Norman Davies tells the ill fated story of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Founded in the mid thirteenth century in one of the continent s first settled regions, where theThe fascinating history of a Baltic empire s dominance and decline excerpted from internationally bestselling author Norman Davies s Vanished KingdomsVanished Kingdoms introduces readers to once powerful European empires that have left scant traces on the modern map In this excerpt from his widely acclaimed book, Norman Davies tells the ill fated story of the Grand Duchy of LithuaniaVanished Kingdoms introduces readers to once powerful European empires that have left scant traces on the modern map In this excerpt from his widely acclaimed book, Norman Davies tells the ill fated story of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Founded in the mid thirteenth century in one of the continent s first settled regions, where the oldest of its Indo European languages is spoken, the Grand Duchy at its peak was the largest country in Europe, stretching from the Baltic to the Black SeaAbout Litva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania The fascinating history of a Baltic empire s dominance and decline excerpted from internationally bestselling author Norman Davies s Vanished Kingdoms Vanished Kingdoms introduces readers to once powerful European empires that have left scant traces on the modern map In this excerpt from his widely acclaimed book, Norman Davies tells the ill fated story of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Founded in the mid thirteenthRead Litva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms Penguin Tracks by Norman Davies available from Rakuten Kobo The fascinating history of a Baltic empire s dominance and decline excerpted from internationally bestselling author NorLitva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms Penguin Tracks eBook Davies, Norman Kindle StoreCompre Litva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms Penguin Tracks English Edition de Davies, Norman na Confira tamb m os eBooks mais vendidos, lan amentos e livros digitais exclusivosLitva The Rise and Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania A Selection from Vanished Kingdoms Penguin Tracks English Edition eBook Davies, Norman Kindle Store

Empires of Early Latin America (The Maya, the Aztecs, the Incas,) 3 Boxed SET Folio Society

R sultats de la rechercheEmpires of Early Latin America The Maya, the Aztecs, the Incas, Boxed SET Folio Society NORMAN HAMMOND NIGEL DAVIES on FREE shipping on qualifying offers Empires of Early Latin America The Maya, the Aztecs, the Incas, Boxed SET Folio SocietyEmpires of Early Latin America The Maya, the Aztecs, the Incas, Boxed SET Folio Society book Read reviews from world s largest community for readersBuy Empires of Early Latin America The Maya, the Aztecs, the Incas, Boxed SET Folio Society Ninth Printing by Davies, Nigel Hammond, Norman ISBN froms Book Store Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible ordersFolio Society Empires of Early Latin America New Sealed Hardcover with SlipcoverThe secrets of the ancient Latin Americas, the Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas, revealed in this superb three volume set From about the third century AD to the sixteenth, when the Europeans arrived and native American civilisation rapidly collapsed, three ancient empires the Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas dominated the region The history of these early civilizations of Latin America is brought to life TheEmpires of Early Latin America vol Maya Aztecs Incas Folio Society Slipcase Free shippingEmpires Of Early Latin America Published By The Folio Society The Aztecs, The Incas, The Maya, Volume Set on FREE shipping on qualifying offers Empires Of Early Latin America Published By The Folio Society The Aztecs, The Incas, The Maya, Volume Set Buy Empires Of Early Latin America The Aztecs, The Incas The Maya by ISBN froms Book Store Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible ordersempires of early latin america in volumes the maya the incas the aztecs hammond, norman davies, nigel onfree shipping on qualifying offers empires of early latin america in volumes the maya the incas the aztecsEmpires of the Ancient Near East Four Volume Set SLIP CASE The Folio Society shipping EMPIRES OF EARLY LATIN AMERICA INCAS AZTECS MAYA volumes FOLIO SOCIETY SC shipping EMPIRES OF EARLY LATIN AMERICA Incas Aztecs Maya volumes FOLIO SOCIETY SC Free shipping Picture Information Opens image gallery Image not available MouseThe secrets of the ancient Latin Americas, the Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas, revealed in this superb three volume set From about the third century AD to the sixteenth, when the Europeans arrived and native American civilisation rapidly collapsed, three ancient empires the Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas dominated the region

George II: Not Just a British Monarch

R sultats de la rechercheGeorge II George Augustus German Georg August October November OS NS October was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick L neburg and a prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire from June until his death in George is the most recent British monarch born outside Great Britain he was born and brought up in northern Germany George II so admired the Hallelujah chorus in Handel s Messiah that he stood while it was being performed as modern audiences still do Much of his attention remained in Hanover and on continental politics, as a result of which he was the last British monarch to lead his troops into battle at Dettingen in George II, king of Great Britain and elector of Hanover from to Although he possessed sound political judgment, his lack of self confidence caused him to rely heavily on his ministers, most notable of whom was Sir Robert Walpole Learnabout George II s life and reign in this article They re not making a huge effort to promote these charities, and these charities will function just fine without them It s not to say none of it is relevant or usefulThe monarchy is fara part of our culture than many people realise, and is neither about religion, nor fairy tales as George Williams relates The fact is the the royal family are a net benefit to the UK no, its not about tourism, and if weSuccession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex males born before October precede their elder sisters in the line of succession , legitimacy, and religion Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign s children or by a childless sovereign s nearest collateral lineThe Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement restrict succession to the throne to theThe next monarch, George II, witnessed the final end of the Jacobite threat in , when the Catholic Stuarts were completely defeated Instead, the British monarch was acknowledged as Head of the Commonwealth in all Commonwealth member states, whether they were realms or republics The position is purely ceremonial, and is not inherited by the British monarch as of right but is vestedList Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since March She became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland on May Her total reign lasted for years and days For a family tree that shows George I s relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain Family treeQueen Elizabeth II became the longest reigning British monarch on September when she surpassed the reign of her great great grandmother Victoria On February she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating years on the throne She has reigned for years as at February